Dhamma Letter No. 103
Satipatthana 27 : Kayanupassana 18 : Reflection on Repulsiveness 3 : Kasiṇa meditation (Samatha) and Vipassana
As previously mentioned, by observing 32 body parts, you can recognize each color. When you focus on a part of your body, you stop and focus on that part. For example, if you observe a bone with your mind and stop there, the shape of the bone disappears, and only white, the color of the bone, comes to mind. The white color becomes a representation and remains a meditation subject, concentrating only on white. This is called samatha (concentration) meditation.
10 Kasiṇa (4 elements + 4 colors + light + space: earth, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, light, limited space) is among the 40 samatha meditation themes presented in the book of "the path of purification". Kasiṇa meditation is one of the most common types of samatha meditation for calming the mind of the yogi and starting a basis for practicing vipassana meditation.
Concentrating on a single object and cultivating meditation is a meditation that was practiced in India and other countries before the Buddha attained enlightenment. Satipatthana (Vipassana) is a decisive way to present the Buddha's attaining enlightenment from his previous practice. For nibbana (enlightenment or liberation), vipassana meditation (satipatthana) refers to the observation of the body and mind as the Dhamma itself.
It is the first verse of Maha-satipaṭṭhāna sutta (DN22, 大念處经):
Bhikkhus, this is for the purification of all sentient beings, for sorrow and lamentation. The right way to get rid of suffering and hatred is to overcome. It is the only way to realize nirvana.
As mentioned earlier in walking meditation (Dhamma Letter 98), it is very helpful for those who are somewhat distracted or for beginners to use this samatha method to calm their minds first. In modern society, many people have stress and busy daily life, so it is a good way to start meditating by focusing on one object. However, in the case of advanced meditators, if they practice for the purpose of liberation and nirvana, it needs right Sati (Samma Sati) in vipassana. Then, they will attain right concentration / tranquility (Samma Samadhi), right wisdom (Samma Panna), and achieve great fruit.
When one is able to see things clearly and perceive things as they are (right view) based on a still mind, and begin to understand the nature of the impermanent, dissatisfactory, and non-self, it is converted to vipassana meditation.
The Buddha taught two kinds of meditation: 1. For concentration or tranquility (samatha) 2. For insight or understanding (vipassanā)
If one practices samatha, one's mind becomes pure and concentrated. When the mind is in tranquility, the mind can see things as they truly are. It will be connected to the vipassanā way (insight meditation).
1. Samatha Meditation: Setting one object and continuing to focus (Paññatti: concept). What the mind is fleeing from must be caught and bound to the object, so that the mind does not wander. You need to relax your body and mind and practice over and over again. It is aimed at sinking and calming the mind.
2. Vipassana Meditation: To understand the impermanent (Anicca), dissatisfaction (Dukkha), and non-self (Anatta), with the ultimate reality (Paramatha: Truth) rapidly changing at every moment as the object . Therefore, it can be carried out by noticing it 24/7 anytime, anywhere. Through the development of wisdom, we get rid of even the finest defilements completely and achieve liberation from the samsara.
To be continued...
May you cultivate your Sati continuously (Samma-Viriya)!
May you achieve the Samma-Sati through Satipatthāna (vipassana meditation)!
May all practice well and reach to Magga (道, the path of enlightenment) and Phala(果, the fruit of enlightenment)!
Edited by Euna Bonovich
If you have any questions related to dhamma & meditation, please feel free to ask. You can reach Ayya Kosalla directly at Bhikkhuni.Kosalla@gmail.com .
법에 대한 질문이 있으신 분은 위의 이메일 주소로 질문을 남겨주세요.
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The Korean Dhamma Letter is here 담마레터.
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Buddha Sāsanaṁ Ciraṁ Tiṭṭhatu!
May the Buddha’s teachings last a long time!
Bhavatu Sabba Sotiṁ ca Maṅgalaṁ ca!!
May everyone be led on the path of peace and blessing!!
Sādhu Sādhu Sādhu !